Stevo’s Forcing Class Fall 2012 – Class 6

(This is the sixth lecture in Stevo Todorcevic’s Forcing class, held in the fall of 2012. You can find the fifth lecture here. Quotes by Stevo are in dark blue; some are deep, some are funny, some are paraphrased so use your judgement. As always I appreciate any type of feedback, including reporting typos, in the comments below.)

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Stevo’s Forcing Class Fall 2012 – Class 1

(In the fall of 2012 I will be taking Stevo Todorcevic’s class in Forcing at the University of Toronto. I will try to publish my notes here, although that won’t always be possible.)

Summary of class 1.

  • Discuss examples of ccc posets whose product is not ccc.
  • Prove a theorem of Baumgartner’s that relates the branches in a tree to its antichain structure.
  • Display the differences in chain conditions.

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The Delta-System Lemma


Now that you know the basics of countable elementary submodels (CESM), you might think that you are in the clear. “Mike”, you say arrogantly, “I know all the most basic properties of CESMs, without proof I remind you, what else could I possibly want?”. I gently and patiently remind you that CESMs are worthless unless you know how to apply them properly.

So let’s do that.

Here are two theorems whose proofs you might already know, but that can be proved using elementary submodels. I will show you a proof of the \Delta -system lemma (a fundamental lemma in infinitary combinatorics) and a topological theorem of Arhangel’skii. Both of these proofs are taken from Just & Weese’s book “Discovering Modern Set Theory 2”, chapter 24.

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